Opinion editorial: Alien Energy

The Energy Walk was more than just a proverbial eye-opener: it was an aesthetic experience. During launch day of the project, an elderly participant was overcome with emotions as she proclaimed her joy at the way that the researchers had captured her understanding of living at the “edge”, i.e. in the countryside. As she was crying tears of joy, the researchers considered what this meant for their work. It is most likely not the case, but I like to imagine those two things happening simultaneously. They had set out to create awareness of infrastructures, but had gone beyond that. The walk touched the imaginations of the walkers in ways that surprised the walkers as much as the researchers. An imaginative space of sorts had come into existence, one that was employed to consider both the current and future outlook of the Danish edge-landscape.

Advertisements

Internet of things and how they own or sell our digital souls

Technology is a big part of our lives. Since the beginning of the internet era we do a lot of things online; we can date, buy, play, work, communicate, coordinate, explore, represent who we are and more. Everything we do online leaves a data trace, and unlike humans this is immortal. In this time in history we have to accept that technology makes our lives easier and at the same time it stores information about us. So after death, if one has been digitally active, a version of one’s soul will remain as data. And this data is capital, valuable and lucrative, because it helps companies identifying which profile we are and thus what to sell to profiles similar to us. This has lead to a world where traditional advertising is obsolete, and research and data collection is the next best thing. Within this context the Internet of Things arises.

Computer and mobile devices are not the only objects that provide access to the online world, now a watch, an entire home, or a car will do so too. This means four things 1) intelligent objects assure that even more data will be produced — even when our laptop or mobiles devices are off. 2) Companies producing intelligent objects will own more data from users 3) More data will be traded among organisations for different purposes: mere lucrative purposes, development, research — among other possible options and lastly  4) new generations born in this time will be tracked from day one, and their data will be usable during and after their death.

There is a paradox in this time in history, It seems like the internet has given us power to reach everything at anytime. Childhood friends will never disappear from our lives thanks to Facebook. Friends living in opposite sides of the world can chat daily through Skype, or WhatsApp for free. Dead relatives can keep receiving comments and posts from us in their afterlife. It is a serious issue how most people do not stop and think that in exchange of free services we agree to give away every photo, conversation and personal information shared on this platforms, even the information shared on a private message — which in nature is everything but private. Our daily life conversations are owned by social media companies. And the regulations around them are still not clear or good enough.

We live in a spiral, where we reject privacy for commodity. The possibility to change some privacy settings may seem like we are in control. Because we feel good when Facebook reminds us to set our privacy settings. Specially in regards of what other users can see, or how we are perceived. But surely Facebook does not remind us the amount of data collected to date that they have from us. How would it be to receive a message from Facebook saying something like:  “Today we own 5000 private conversations from you since you opened your account with us, and we will keep them for ever”.

It seems like privacy is a complex issue, but, people still close the door when they go to the toilet, or keep certain aspects to their life private to the public, – no? Privacy is a civil right, which in the digital age is constantly challenged and forgotten by companies, government and individuals. In relation to it, smart homes or wearable gadgets are both a commodity and a threat to privacy. There is a great amount of interference, recurring to the article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

“No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.”

Against interference, or unethical actions the law must be updated to this present concerns, privacy is a civil right that must be preserved, especially in the digital world of Internet of Things, where these objects are becoming inevitably pervasive: they can be everywhere. There is no doubt that Intelligent objects will be incorporated gradually in cities, institutions and homes. People do wear intelligent watches, we know of  hotels in the mediterranean coast which are starting to implement  intelligent light systems that can be controlled and hacked. This objects serve to monitor what surrounds us and at the same time companies, through these Intelligent gadgets can monitors us..

Consequently, Industry has to produce intelligent objects respecting civil rights and embracing Ethical Design oriented processes, where the privacy challenges are considered specifically in the design, production and distribution phases of this products. Moreover, users have to be informed about the repercussions attached to monitoring and producing data through intelligent objects. People need to know that their privacy will be challenged after buying intelligent objects, it’s packaging and manual should express clearly — and with a proper size font, how the data produced will be managed. If you buy an intelligent watch, you need to know if the company building this watch will monitor and sell your personal data from that day on. It is a civil right for users to know if these objects respect one’s privacy rights. Unfortunately like in the case of smoking, just because the package tells you it can kill it doesn’t mean you won’t stop buying it in the end, that’s is way this is also a concern for individuals.

 

Last Words – Tojo

Can you feel the wind? Can you feel the power of Nature, the primordial breath of our world, running across the rocks and sea of the Orkney Islands? Can you feel it tearing at your jacket and your hair, as you desperately seek shelter that is only ever a half measure?

This is energy, a power that has too long been forgotten and has gone untapped by human kind, who would rather dig up and burn fuel than embrace the natural forces of the world. But that time has passed; I am proof enough of that, even though I have seen better days. Follow the wind and you will find me, where I have fallen, all but forgotten. I lie on a rocky peak overlooking the Orkney Islands that have been my home for more than half a century, and which will soon enough become my tomb.

I am the first wind turbine on Orkney and even through my time has passed and I no longer stand as tall as I once did, my gaze sees far and my memory still holds true. As I lie here I do not begrudge my end – though a little more reverence would not have been out of order – for I have full view of my legacy, here where the wind and the ocean remains a constant reminder of what power truly is.

My story began as far back as the 1950’s in the nascent beginning of the alternative energy movement. I rose above Orkney, a titan of steel and concrete, but I was only the beginning. Technological advancement soon saw me replaced – as so many others after me have been replaced – and today countless privately owned wind turbines supply the citizens of these distant isles with more than enough power, while experimental wave and tide energy plants increase this supply even further. Not only the wind and ocean but the very electrical grid of Orkney is ripe with energy.

And as technology advances and the ever looming threats of global climate change and dwindling fossil fuel resources has grown, Orkney should have been a shining beacon for energy advancement. A 2016 report from the UK National Infrastructure Commission even mentions many of the advancements made on Orkney: an infrastructure allowing for sharing of abundant natural energy resources, the implementation of grid batteries to ensure a constant and reliable flow of electricity and local flexible power production.

There is just one problem. The report never mentioned Orkney. The reasons are not clear but one thing is certain: Just like my broken body, left atop a cliff overlooking the roaring ocean, Orkney and all that have been achieved here, have been forgotten.

Like I said, my own unceremonious entombment is not what troubles me. By all means let my bones become a monument to where we came from, and how far we have come. No, my fear is for my legacy, my grand children and their children. Are they fated to the same demise as I?

Will the majestic eye of OpenHydro one day look unmoving at an ocean that it no longer harness, welcoming travelers to an energy future the mainland forgot? And what of its 7 siblings, other promising wave energy plants that might be headed for a similar fate? It is an uncomfortable notion when you look at the Alstom 1 MW tide turbine slowly rusting on the pier of Kirkwall.

Even the dreams of a far reaching, interdependent power infrastructure could be furthered if only Orkney’s single underwater cable was to be joined by another. The cable transfers excess power from Orkney to the mainland, but it is at capacity and as it stands, the billion pounds investment in an additional cable seems to be low on the agenda; the energy concentrated in the Orkney power grid and grid battery, is ripe for the taking but seem destined to be left on the vine to dry up… or rot.

So easily we forget the advancements made by those on our borders. At the edge, a brighter future has already come to pass but it has been forgotten. And if we forget what has come before… well all that work will have gone to waste, and by the time the main land catches up to its forgotten outpost, it may be too late.

This is my fear but along with that fear, I have found hope and faith, not in the decision makers in London or the reticent energy corporations, but in the people here at the edge.

Below me I can see the city of Kirkwall. Here there is talk of a marine energy museum, a way to ensure that the Alstrom will be granted a more respectful internment than I. Just like I stand as a incidental monument of the beginning, such a museum holds the promise of remembrance for how far we have come: the challenges, ingenuity and the successes of the Orkney energy experiments. Here our forward strides will not be lost to time, for the people at the edge do not forget. Their past and the past of the marine energy experiments are intertwined, and more importantly the people of Orkney are proud of what they have accomplished, and the path they walked along the way.

The people of Orkney are dealing with the present as well. When the government of distant London will not tether them to the mainland they have found other ways of utilizing their energy surplus. No fruits will rot on the vine while the people of Orkney tend the field. Orkney boast the highest number of electric cars per person anywhere in the UK, and have banded together to buy a hydrogen fuel plant. There they turn their excess energy into hydrogen fuel that powers the ferries between the islands and the mainland. Against all the odds, the energy of Orkney reaches the mainland, whether the mainland wants it or not.

And when I turn my gaze further afield, I see more reasons for hope across the North Sea in the small city of Hanstholm on the vest coast of Jutland. Just as Orkney, Hanstholm exists on the edge, largely forgotten, but they too are the sight of wave energy experiments. But unlike here, this is a new development, and the locals have yet to see the impact of these new energy sources.

But the soil of this distant shore is rich and ready for the seed of the energy future to be planted. Researchers have done this and from their fields walking sticks have grown. But these are not simply branches to lean on, but guides on a tour through the hidden world of new energy.

Inside the walking sticks a recording is housed, ready to take you on The Energy Walk.  The poetic narration of the Walk combined with the natural beauty of Hanstholm and its energy infrastructure hiding in plain sight, is meant to evoke an emotional response in the listener and to spark their imagination.

In this way the Energy Walk lifts the veil, revealing the positive impact of new energy sources, and in time the Walk might be an example of how others can come to see what the people of Orkney have seen: that in spite of its invisibility, energy is not separate from us but completely entwined to our lives.

And as I return to the bedrock of Orkney, the relentless wind rushing across me, my last thought is one of hope. No change comes un-contested, but I do not see a future that is bleak. I have seen the strength and conviction of those living on the edge, unwilling to be forgotten, and I have faith in them.

Knowledge is Power

The invention of writing brought with it a new source of power, information. Many did try to wield it the past, but this task was proved to be difficult as lifting the Excalibur out of its’ stone, only very few along the ages did manage to use this tool effectively.  As time passed, Men with its outstanding ability to overcome challenges, its inventiveness, and imagination, finally tackled this issue, making it possible to finally hold this tool as easily as we had mastered others in the past.

 

Opinion editorial

We can’t avoid that smartphones, tablets and wearable devices collecting our data. Smartphones are able to track everything from search queries on google, to usage times and preferences when it comes to social contacts. The whole economy of devices connected to the internet is called the Internet of Things, short IoT. Estimates suggest that by 2020 over 200 billion devices will be connected to the IoT. The market size is estimated to be $3 to $7 billion (peppet, p5). As time goes on, we are getting more and more connected to the internet, which just opens more channels that companies can gather our data. Only few users are aware what actually happens with this data though.

Executive summary: Alien Energy

Renewable energy has in recent years become a central part of our all lives. This might surprise statistically, since renewable energy covers only a fraction of the global energy production, with oil, coal and gas still dominating while wind, water, biological and other electricity barely visible on the graphs. With man-made climate change already in effect, scientists, environmentalists, governments and many sections of the public in the west have come to the conclusion, that something has to be changed. The direction hereby is quite clear: Renewable energy is the future.

While renewable energy production might be the way forward, energy production is a competitive market. With Oil and Gas companies trying to defend their fossil fuel sources, it is an imperative to policy makers and environmental activists to convince the public of more sustainable methods of production. Changing public opinion is a door-opener in democracies, because ultimately only they can create the pressures necessary for long-term change. This is why we are proposing some alternative methods of convincing people to rethink energy productions.

Policy change resulting in laws and regulations that can curb fossil energy sources and promote renewables eventually depend on the people. Changing public perception of renewable energy, and it’s visible counterparts, the infrastructure is necessary to enable policy changes that favor renewable energy technologies. This leads to educational campaigns, and other integrations of ‘renewable energy’ as topic into the everyday life of citizens being of key importance.

Successful research is mainly facilitated in the European Union, the UK and the United States, who constitute major players in researching and testing new technologies, and in educating the public through campaigns. This is also a very competitive market, with many projects running at the same time, start-ups appearing and dying or being bought, ideas being created, prototypes tested, and successes planned, while in some cases those innovations get forgotten.

Tackling negative associations is part of the endeavour to educate the public on renewable energy sources. The researchers Laura Watts and Brit Winthereik face the question of how to redefine public understanding of the infrastructures that support our lives.  Renewable energy infrastructures often appear vastly different than conventional energy infrastructures. They occupy the landscape, sometimes nearly invisible, sometimes jarring, but seeming alien to people’s collective perception. They are alien in the sense that they are unfamiliar, new and strange to us. This can lead to misconceptions and negative attitudes that policy makers have to target.

How do we sway the public opinion then towards appreciating the importance of considering the role of renewable energy technologies and infrastructures in the future? Watts and Winthereik employ new approaches to draw our attention towards these infrastructures. For example, Winthereik envisioned the “Energy Walk”, a journey throughout a Danish coastal village accompanied by a walking stick with an embedded set of headphones. Embarking on the walk whilst listening to the audio recordings played from the digital walking stick is akin to an aesthetic experience: it asks the participant consider various things they encounter related to energy and infrastructures along the way, and to consider their past, future and alternatives.

It is necessary to remember the strides that have been made in renewable energy technologies. Watts points out on her blog that Orkney, an Island-chain at the north-eastern end of Scotland, has in the last couple of years been a hub for research and development of water and wind energy projects alike. Orkney has served as a testing site for smart grid technology research for almost a decade. While its rough, windy and wavy climate supports the creation of energy, sadly Orkneys electricity grid is separate from that of the mainland. This means energy created on the island stays trapped there. Furthermore, the UK National Infrastructure Commission proposes the development and linking of technologies abroad that already have been prototyped at Orkney. Instead of consigning “old” technologies to oblivion, it would be more sensible to build on top of them. In order to stay efficient one should not overlook prior investments and successes.

Investing in renewable energy sources might be a necessary step forward, in that amending policy is the only way forward, but politics often is not a straight, logical process. The Alien Energy project strives to explore ways of focusing public attention towards the infrastructures that shape our understanding of this issue. Projects such as those on the islands of Orkney serves as warning to forgetting existing infrastructure and technology.

Executive Summary by Sannebr

Energy production is a contested field. With Oil and Gas companies trying to defend their fossil sources, it is an imperative to policy makers and environmental activists to convince the public of more sustainable methods of production. With manmade climate change already in effect, scientists, environmentalists, governments and many sections of the public in the west have come to the conclusion, that something has to be changed. The direction hereby is quite clear: To combat climate change, renewable energy is the future. But there is also the political obstacle, in that policy is the only way forward, but politics often is not a straight, logical process.

Changing the public’s minds is a door-opener in democracies, because ultimately only they can create the pressures necessary for long-term change. This is why we are proposing some alternative methods of convincing people to rethink energy productions. Renewable Energy has in recent years become a central part of our all lives. This might surprise statistically, since renewable energy covers only a fraction of the global energy production, with oil, coal, and gas still dominating while wind, water, biological and other electricity barely visible in statistics.

Successful research is mainly facilitated in the European Union, the UK and the United States, who constitute major players in researching and testing new technologies, and in educating the public through campaigns. This is also a very competitive market, with many projects running at the same time, start-ups appearing and dying or being bought, ideas being created, prototypes tested, and successes planned, while in some cases those innovations get forgotten.

Actual change through policy, resulting in laws and regulations that can curb fossil energy sources and promote renewables eventually depend on the people. Changing public perception of renewable energy, and its visible counterparts, the infrastructure is necessary to enable policy changes that favor renewable energy technologies. This leads to informative educational campaigns and other integrations of ‘renewable energy’ as a topic into the everyday life of citizens being of key importance.

Tackling negative associations is part of this endeavor. researchers face the question of how to redefine the public’s understanding of the infrastructures that support our lives.  Renewable energy infrastructures often appear vastly different than conventional energy infrastructures. They occupy the landscape, sometimes nearly invisible, sometimes jarring, but seeming alien to people’s collective perception. They are alien in the sense that they are unfamiliar, new and strange to us. This can lead to misconceptions and negative attitudes, that policy makers have to target.

Projects on the islands of Orkney, an Island chain at the north-east end of Scotland, serves as a warning to forgetting existing infrastructure and technology. As a researcher points out on her blog, Orkney has in the last couple of years been a hub for research and development of water and wind energy projects alike. While it’s rough, windy and wavy climate supports the creation of energy, sadly Orkneys electricity grid is separate from that of the mainland. This means energy created on the isles stays trapped there.

There is another factor of waste at play here. It is necessary to remember the strides that have been made in renewable energy technologies. Orkney has served as a testing site for smart grid technology research for almost a decade. Despite that, the UK National Infrastructure Commission proposes the development and linking of technologies abroad, that already have been prototyped at Orkney. Instead of consigning “old” technologies to oblivion, it would be more sensible to build on top of them. In order to stay efficient one should not overlook prior investments and successes.

How do we sway the public opinion then towards appreciating the importance of considering the role of renewable energy technologies and infrastructures in the future? Researchers employ new approaches to drawing our attention towards infrastructures. For example, researchers have envisioned the “Energy Walk”, a journey throughout a Danish coastal village accompanied by a walking stick with an embedded set of headphones. Embarking on the walk whilst listening to the audio recordings played from the digital walking stick is akin to an aesthetic experience: it asks the participant consider various things they encounter related to energy and infrastructures along the way, and to consider their past, future and alternatives.

Big data executive summary

 

Society as we know it is being reshaped through the emergence of digital infrastructures. The digitization of the public sector makes way for a wide range of opportunities for government practices using big data, which at the same time causes some challenges, such as how do we secure citizens’ privacy. Therefore it is important to comprehend how data is being created and how it can be used, and how the government is more commonly using data. We suggest a public website for citizens gain information about the processes and steps the government takes to secure their data.

Data is generated from people’s everyday life, as data is being created through all of their online devices. Some of this data will end up at a governmental desk, and increasingly more of the data generated by the citizens will become available to the government. Thus it is important that the government is prepared to handle these data with a presumed care. An informed public sector is thus expected to be up to date with the latest strategies and tactics of handling big data, able to handle the formation of digital infrastructures in the public sphere, and furthermore to come up with a generalized structure of this procedure. A website for debate, mediation and intervention is therefore a vital organ for this information gathering process.

This website draws on studies, reflections and theory from studies all around the world, and more specifically subprojects made in the project process. Additional to regular and easy accessible information this website serves to navigate the complexity of big data usage in public sector decision-making, and furthermore demonstrates how universities can innovatively combine the tasks of research, education and outreach.

Everyday life is surrounded by data-saturated environment and people wear personalized data-generation devices on the bodies; not just smartphones but also sensor-embedded wristbands, clothing or watches. These devices humans carry around daily are also invested with and sends out continuous flows of personal information. Personal information including geolocation information, personal images, biometric information and more. However, these devices also leak data outwards, transmitting them to private or public cloud servers. This happens in real-time continuously every day and sometimes without the users’ knowledge or consent. This raises important questions about the security and privacy of the very intimate information that these devices generate, transmit and archive.

These questions turn into Political issues concerning data ownership. Asymmetries in the access of citizens to digital datasets (including their personal data) and that of government and commercial entities.

It is fair to assume that individuals recognize they are consumers of data and producers of data by the constant usage of technological devices. Most of them, know this data is used to some extent by companies and the government to extract information about their users. However, the way the information is processed, the context it is associated to is totally out of control of the users.

Big Data is not representative data. Big data is usually collected from websites such as facebook and twitter. However, these sites favor a certain type of people that have a habit of using such sites. People who are less likely to be on social media sites, as well as any other type of website, creates a divide in the data. There is also a divide in the type of research performed. Furthermore, companies are also not obliged to share all of their data. Some websites will only share a certain percentage of their total data (a so-called water hose). Researchers have no way for telling the quality of data they are getting, which could affect the outcome of their research.

In order to gain an insight into how big data is used and viewed and the digital infrastructure in government institutions a practice-based methodology founded on anthropological principles is used. Furthermore, a plethora of digital tools to compare and contrast the findings from fieldwork inquiries and observations is applied. The digital tools used are mainly open-source and used in sociological studies of science, technology, and innovation.

Executive Summary – tiagocph

Society as we know it is being reshaped through the emergence of digital infrastructures. Big Data brings to the table the digitization of the public sector creating opportunities for government practices. However, doing so, causes some challenges. One of the main challenges is that the public-sector digitization is not clear and practices for using new data sources have not been set yet. It is then crucial to comprehend the new data-driven society, moved by how data is created and used, and making sure the government can adapt to this new scenario.

 

Everyday life is surrounded by data-saturated environment and people wear personalized data-generation devices on the bodies; not just smartphones but also sensor-embedded wristbands, clothing or watches. These devices carried around daily are constantly sending and receiving continuous flows of personal information. It includes geolocation information, personal images, biometric information and more. However, the destination of this data is not clear, going to either private or public sectors or both. This happens in real-time, every day and sometimes without the user’s’ knowledge or consent.

 

Questions of security and privacy turn into Political issues concerning data ownership. Asymmetries in the access of citizens to digital datasets (including their personal data) and that of government and commercial entities.

 

It is fair to assume that citizens recognize, to some extent, data they share and generate by the constant usage of technological devices goes somewhere. Citizens, know companies and the government, look into this data, to extract information about their users. However, the way the information is processed, the context it is associated to is totally out of control of the users. A parallel can be made to food, as the one can choose what to eat, but loses control over what happens to the content of the food in their bodies as the processes of digestion take place. The same happens with fata, we choose the applications we use, but as users our agency ends there, becoming both data-ingesting and data-emitting in an endless cycle of generating data, never sure what becomes of it.

 

This generated information will inevitably end at a governmental desk, and it is fair to assume that it will only increase in the future. The question is raised, how should the Government deal with this situation. Right now, there are not available tools to access this generated data correctly, social-media sites provide only a glimpse into the present, as they lack way to access archived information, or the data collected might not be entirely accurate due to a variety of causes, such as: pre-processing done, sensors used and so on.  Therefore, it is important that the government is prepared to handle this data with care. An informed public sector is thus expected to be up to date with the latest tactics and strategies of handling big data. There needs to be a site for debate, mediation and intervention is therefore a vital organ for this information gathering process.

 

This site would work as a toolbox that draws from studies, reflections and theory all around the world, and more specifically subprojects made in the project process. In addition to regular and easy to read information this toolbox would serve to navigate the complexity of big data usage in public sector decision-making, and demonstrate how universities can innovatively combine the tasks of research, education and outreach.

 

In order to gain an insight into how big data is used and viewed and the digital infrastructure in government institutions a practice-based methodology founded on anthropological principles is used. Furthermore, a plethora of digital tools to compare and contrast the findings from fieldwork inquiries and observations is applied. The digital tools used are mainly open-source and used in sociological studies of science, technology, and innovation.

Executive summary by Alexcecilie

Data is often described as “the new oil”, which implies its newfound value in modern society. With the emergent increase of new technologies and thus more data, large companies can gain almost unlimited access to knowledge about the citizens’ preferences, habits, and whereabouts. This is happening without individual citizen participation as the data collection is happening in non-transparent terms, which makes data handling an ethical issue. This report will propose the importance of making the data collection happen in more plain terms, where the power will be given back to the individual – a responsibility placed on large organizations, as they are the ones producing the software, which collects the data. As there is so much data which is used worldwide, this report argues that one law cannot satisfy all stakeholders – instead, the way of handling data and privacy issues should be to make individual privacy settings possible.

The interconnection between technologies is referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT). This implies that all technologies are connected and can exchange data, e.g. the smartphone can be connected to the car. This creates great possibilities and efficiency for the individual. Imagine finding a destination on your smartphone, then go to your car and connect it to your phone, so it can show the way on the car’s’ GPS.

Findings related to consent policy show a clear lack of specification and consistency, making them hard to understand and locate. For example, IoT devices such as fitness watches and home electricity devices lack a keyboard or touchscreen, which means that it cannot ‘ask’ for user consent. The user must actively search for the consent form online, which studies show, is extremely difficult to find. Furthermore, the ambiguous language used in consent forms makes it tough for users to know exactly what they are accepting. Lastly, the policies are inconsistent in access, modification and deletion rights for the user.

Drifting away in the possibilities of IoT, one may forget the fact that it has not been engineered to actually protect data security. Yet another crucial finding within this project is the issue of the vulnerabilities of these IoT devices to hacking and other security breaches. What has been discovered is that there often exists a trade-off between battery efficiency and device security, from the manufacturers perspective. This absence of thinking about security can lead to new ways of attack, data being breached, stolen and compromised. What IoT does, is merely to turn everyday life objects into an information security target, while distributing those targets far more widely than the current version of the Internet – thus enhancing the risks of security.

Intrusion on privacy has been recognized as yet another interrelated challenge with IoT. The issue originates in different things, such as the user being unaware of the quantity and detail of gathered data, and the extensive profiling capabilities of the ever more data that is generated by IoT. The Smart Home as an example, is a home made up of a variety of consumer sensor devices, including thermostats, internet, television, energy management, security etc., all generating piles of data that can be assembled, further analyzed, and reveal specific aspects of habits, behaviors and preferences of the people living there. Gathered data that is considered very sensitive. The challenge of privacy is also bound in the users’ lack of control over their data. This is especially clear when third-party monitors are used, as they may not even ensure the data to be used for the original purpose(s).

Privacy and security policies within the IoT network needs to be up to date and clear to users. This is not only in the best interest of the user but also the enterprises offering IoT devices, who avoid lawsuits and complaints by satisfying privacy and security needs through a clear and concise policy framework.  Organizations, who fail to meet needs and demands in an increasingly digitized and technological future, will become outdated and redundant.

With the ethics surrounding IoT, tailor-made solutions are the best way to integrate privacy regulations into companies as well as to the individual citizen. The report proposes a way to allow users to take control of their own privacy measures. Every user should judge for themselves what type of data should and should not be shared. For this to work, companies need to be transparent in their handling of data and enhance education for users. Especially those who are not as computer affine as the younger generation are required to make well-informed decisions about their privacy settings. An initial advancement in privacy policy framework, SecKit, offers a software program, which allows users to use pre-existing policies or completely customize their own.